Locking techniques are used to force thr the opponent, or partners in training or competition to give up. In competition-oriented judo locking techniques are only allowed which act on the elbow. In principle, each ankle (e.g. knee, finger, hand, and even neck) can be stretched or twisted, so be locked. The motion, brought about by TORI, leads towards the anatomically intended direction of movement, it will stabbing pain, which forces the partners to give up. It is important that the arm of UKE is fixed by TORI. The effectiveness and effort to be used are determined by the physical law of the levers.
There are two types of locks: stretching locks (gatame groups) or bending locks (Garami groups). In the stretching lock the arm of UKE is pressed against the normal direction of movement. In contrast, the bending lock is rotated UKE's angled arm at the elbow.
In Kawaishi system the locking techniques are divided in 6 starting positions or groups. The techniques are partly the same but different according to the respective initial positions of TORI in relation to UKE.